How an International Mobile Call is established? Submarine Cable Mystery

How an international mobile call is established? Has this topic ever stumbled upon your mind? Let’s learn it in brief today. Another surprising factor of Telecom is international mobile calls. Today, let’s learn about it. We already know what local call is.

The processing of mobile phone communication for the international mobile calls is similar to that of local calls. The rest just takes a little storytelling. Let’s learn how an international mobile call is established?

how an international mobile call is established- Connectivity through Calls
Connectivity through Calls

We can’t even imagine that our words, messages, emails are floating in the depths of the sea. You may be surprised to hear. But, in reality this is what happens.

How? When we call our friends, relatives, relatives abroad, you will notice that there is a two or three or four digit country code before calling the number.

Now, what is this country code? 

Suppose, when you enter your own home, you do not have to introduce yourself to your family members. But, when you want to enter a stranger’s house for some work, you must give your identity or if someone in that house knows you, you have to tell his name. The same goes for the country code.

You will need a code when you want to enter from your country’s gateway to another country’s gateway. This is what Country Code is. For example, suppose I want to make a call at Oman. Then I have to give the Country Code of Oman. Which is probably +966.

International Call Statistics
International Call Statistics

Now, the question may come again, why is “+” given? This is actually the exit code to leave your country. Which is also represented by 00. Exit Code to leave your country & Country Code to enter foreign country. This explains it. But, how does the transmission of the call take place?

When the operator of the switching station in your country senses the country code, it is sent to do a job. What job? Your word will travel so far. Thousands of miles. So, it is not possible to send data to Oman’s switching station through our local tower.

So, another medium has to be used here. What is that? Whether it is satellite or submarine cable.

Then the companies thought a lot and saw that submarine cable is better than satellite in sending calls to foreign countries. 

Why?

Because there is a tendency to signal loss in satellites.

The Bandwidth of satellites are lower than that of submarines. Again, submarine cable is an underwater optical fiber based guided medium. In which data is sent using a light signal/laser at lightning speed. It goes without saying that there is no loss.

Then my data enters the gateway of Oman through the submarine link. What happens then? Then the call goes to the Oman switching station with the trunk code which is in that number. Here, the other code is the area code that the operators of Oman senses it and delivers to your desired person.

Lastly, the same process took place for a call to reach from Oman to Bangladesh. However, things like international mobile calls and local calls are not processed so fast. Routing takes some time. Routing is the call that travels along the route. That’s why when you speak, it can be heard in Oman after a few seconds or we hear it after a few seconds. Attempts have been made to explain the international mobile call system easily by avoiding complications. Hope you like it.

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Sources for Infographic:

  1. STATISTA
  2. ITU INTERNATIONAL
  3. MAPS OF WOLRD

Courtesy: Iqbal Mahmood