This article will discuss the process of cell tower antenna design. Let us learn the whole topic in brief. We know that the main driving force of a tower / BTS (Base Transceiver Station) is the antenna. Again, this antenna is a device that helps us to transmit the information from a transmitter to the receiver end.
Many people ask, what is the benefit of damaging the environment by increasing the radiation by putting so many towers, so many antennas? Can’t we send the data to the sender directly? Why will it not be able to transmit? But, you don’t want to hear.
Suppose I throw a ball at someone. He will catch. Now, if I use someone else in the middle as a medium the chances of the ball going to him are much higher. The matter is actually like that.
Process of Cell Tower Antenna Design
Notice if there is a tower next to the house. You will see that there is no antenna on one side of the tower. There are arrangements all around. What is the reason? This is because the antenna design of the tower transmits the signal in uni-directional way. So it is arranged in such a way that the signal can spread around.
Can’t the signal be spread around with one? In fact, there are also such antennas. But the performance will be very less. For example, if 5 people are allowed to eat one plate, then no one will be able to eat at a satisfactory way. But if 5 people are given 5 plates, then everyone will eat with satisfaction.
How many antennas will I install, what size antenna will I install and how will I determine it?
First you have to see in which area you are installing the tower. If the area is densely populated then you need to use more antennas. Again, if it is a secluded, hilly, forest, island area then less antenna should be used.
Now, installing the antenna is not the end. Moreover, there is the calculation of angle. A circle is imagined around the tower. Then all the antenna designs are placed at a certain angle. Suppose, I put 6 antennas. So, I have to put the antenna at 360÷6 = 60 degrees. Furthermore, this process is called antenna sectoring.
If 10 antennas are designed then it will be 36 degrees. This sectoring can increase radiation capacity. So, what about the size? Size is also a factor. Generally, large size antennas are used for low frequency communication and small size antennas are used for high frequency communication. Because, f = 1 / T. The lower the frequency, the higher the time period.
Furthermore, if you want to increase the time period of bidirectional web, you have to keep the size big. Again, if you want to keep the size, you have to keep the size. For this you will see that AM, FM antenna size is bigger. The antenna of the mobile tower is shorter than that. So, you learned a trick to detect a tower. As a result, 2G, 3G towers are now easily recognizable
Which antennas are used in mobile towers?
- RF Antenna
- Microwave antenna. The tower is used for high frequency & long distance communication.
Is it possible to transmit GHz/THz frequency with the antenna?
The size of the antenna is a big factor. There is a very good relationship between the size and the frequency of the signal. The smaller the antenna size, the higher the signal frequency. Just like water comes out through a very narrow pipe at high speed. This is why you will see that the antennas of 3G/4G mobile towers are very short. Again, the radio antenna is huge because the AM/FM radio frequency is much lower than the mobile frequency.
You can’t change the size if you want to. You have to work hard for this. If you want to develop GHz frequency then you need to take the help of Nanotechnology.
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Courtesy: Iqbal Mahmood